If bureaucracies are good at anything, it’s creating paperwork, and the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) is the king of all bureaucracies, especially when it comes to tax forms. Most paperwork needed for filing your federal tax return can be completed and submitted electronically, but you’ll need to acquire some forms, on paper or via the web, to get the job done. We’ll explain how to find and obtain the forms you need, how often the IRS updates its forms, and the options for filing your tax forms online.
For the 2021 tax year, the U.S. tax season began on Monday, January 24, 2022, which is when the IRS begins accepting and processing 2021 returns.
- There are four ways to find tax forms on the IRS website.
- Downloading an online form and saving it to your hard drive is the best way to avoid losing your entries if your browser crashes or you accidentally close it.
- Learn the safety measures to prevent identity theft if you file online, as most now do.
- You may be able to get free software that will help you fill out the forms and file electronically.
- Filing early reduces the risk of identity theft.
- Employers, financial institutions, and others have deadlines by which they need to mail your tax forms or make them available electronically.
How to Find Tax Forms on the IRS Website
Finding tax forms on the IRS website is easy. You can go about it in one of four ways:
- Go to IRS.gov.
- Mouse over “Forms and Instructions” in the horizontal menu bar and select a form to download.
- Go to IRS.gov.
- Type the name of the form you need into the search bar on the right side of the horizontal menu bar to display it.
- Open any search engine.
- In the search bar, type the name of the form you’re looking for, then “site:irs.gov." For example, if you’re looking for form 1040, your search string would be “2021 form 1040 site:irs.gov.”
Any of these options will ensure you get a legitimate tax form directly from the IRS website. You can also complete the necessary tax forms on your own or use tax prep software.
Note: Tax prep software already has all of the forms you need, so if you're using one of them, don't bother downloading the forms in advance.
2021 tax returns will be due April 18, 2022, which is later due to the Emancipation Day holiday in the District of Columbia on April 15th. For those living in Maine or Massachusetts, the deadline to file is April 19, 2022, due to the Patriots' Day holiday in those states.
How Often the IRS Changes Its Tax Forms
The IRS has to update many of its forms annually. Even if the form’s content doesn’t change, the form needs to state the current year so taxpayers can be confident they’re filing the correct paperwork and calculating the right amount of tax due. The IRS updates its forms because of new laws or guidance, new addresses or phone numbers, or the need to make a correction or clarification.
A big reason for tax form changes is new legislation, such as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017. This legislation required the IRS to create new 1040 forms and new schedules. Marginal tax rates, standard deductions, itemized deductions, and more changed under the law. Another major piece of legislation, the Affordable Care Act, necessitated changes to tax forms because of the subsidies, penalties, and new taxes the law mandated.
Completing Online Tax Forms
In the tax year 2018, the government changed Form 1040 and the supplemental forms many taxpayers file along with it. Instead of forms 1040, 1040-A, and 1040-EZ, there’s Form 1040 for most filers, plus a different form you can choose to file if you're a senior: Form 1040-SR.
Taxpayers who take the standard deduction and have simple returns don’t need to file any other forms.
The IRS provides a fillable PDF of Form 1040 online as well as some common schedules and forms. You can type in your information and then print the form, but a safer option is to download it first, then save it to your hard drive as you fill it out so you don’t lose your entries if your browser crashes or you accidentally close it. After filling out and printing the form, you'll sign it, attach copies of any required forms (W-2 being the most common), and mail it in.
This process is straightforward and inexpensive; you’ll need to pay for postage, preferably a method you can track to prove you submitted your return on time. The IRS says it will process your paper return within six to eight weeks when submitted by mail. If you’re due a refund, it usually takes about three weeks to receive it, although it can be sooner with direct deposit.
People who need to report information not included on Form 1040 (or 1040-SR) will need to submit additional schedules. These might include one or more of the following:
- Schedule A: Itemized Deductions
- Schedule B: Interest and Ordinary Dividends
- Schedule C: Profit or Loss From Business (Sole Proprietorship)
- Schedule D: Capital Gains and Losses
- Schedule 8812: Child Tax Credit
For a complete list, see "Schedules for Form 1040 and Form 1040-SR." You can fill out these schedules just as we described above for Form 1040.
Filing Your Tax Forms Electronically
April 15 used to be the worst day of the year to visit the post office. Mind-numbing queues formed as everyone waited in line to get the envelopes containing their tax forms postmarked—proof they were mailed in the nick of time. Some people filled out special labels and paid a few extra bucks to get a tracking number and proof of delivery.
Is Filing Electronically Safe?
The appeal of electronic filing is obvious, but is it safe? Your tax filing contains some of the most sensitive data about you: where you live, how much you earn, how many dependents you have, your Social Security number, how high your medical expenses were, and how much you gained or lost from selling investments.
Can you trust the tax software companies and the government to have employed best-in-class security to protect your data both as it’s being transmitted and while it’s being stored? If you use online tax software, your information is also being stored in the cloud, creating another point of vulnerability.
For this reason, some people prefer to purchase downloadable software so their data is stored only on their own computer. That way, they are vulnerable to one less data breach possibility.
In this era of data breaches and identity theft, security and privacy questions are important to ask. The table below shows what security features online tax services provide as of January 2022 for the 2021 tax return season. Note that the absence of a feature in the table doesn’t necessarily mean the software provider doesn’t have it, just that the information wasn’t available on the company’s data security page. Also, while each service describes its encryption practices differently, all appear to be using appropriate methods.
|Security and Fraud Prevention Features in Popular Tax Preparation Software, January 2022|
|Software Brand||Multifactor Authentication||Touch ID||Encryption||Login and Device Activity||Account Change Email Notifications||Physical Data Security||External Audits and Risk Assessments|
|TurboTax||yes||yes||SSL encryption that exceeds IRS standards||yes||yes||not advertised||not advertised|
|H&R Block||yes||not advertised||data is bank-level encrypted when transferred from your computer to H&R Block and from H&R Block to the IRS||not advertised||not advertised||data centers, networks, and servers are physically secured||yes|
|TaxAct||yes||not advertised||industry-standard SSL protocol||yes||not advertised||not advertised||not advertised|
Sources: Turbo Tax, H&R Block, and TaxAct.
Electronic Pitfalls to Avoid
If you do file your tax forms electronically, don’t complete them on a public computer, and don’t transmit your return over public WiFi.
Use a personal computer with antivirus and firewall software and a secure, password-protected private WiFi network, such as your home or work network. Don’t transmit your tax returns over an unsecured coffee shop, airplane, or library network.
Paper Returns Have Vulnerabilities, Too
It’s also important to consider how safe it is to submit your tax return by mail. Paper returns can be lost or stolen. They’re also more susceptible to error. Unfortunately, your private information is vulnerable no matter how you submit your return.
Certain forms can’t be e-filed no matter how you complete them. However, most people won’t need to file these forms. The most common circumstance when you might have to submit a paper return is if you need to file an amended return, although it should be noted tax years 2019 and 2020 can be submitted electronically under certain conditions.
Besides the possible security risks—which may be outweighed by features such as convenience and receiving your refund faster—are there any other cons of filing your tax forms electronically?
Tax-Form Filing Fees
You can file your 2021 federal tax return for free if your income for the year 2021 was $73,000 or less. The IRS makes available a selection of tax software to use, including two Spanish-language programs, from many of the major publishers. You may have to pay a small fee to file your state return.
If your income is above that level, the tax preparation software you use will charge you to complete and file your state and federal returns. The IRS and state governments do not charge you a fee to e-file your tax return. The fee comes from the tax prep company.
Similarly, if you hire a professional tax preparer, they may pass on to you any e-file fees charged by the professional tax software used.
If you use the IRS’s Free File fillable forms, you may be able to file electronically, or you may have to print and mail your return. It depends on which forms you are submitting, which supporting information you have to add to your forms, and which documents you’re required to submit along with your forms.
No matter what preparation method you use, the main cost associated with completing your tax returns (besides your time) will be the fee to use the preparation software, not the e-filing itself.
Should You File Early?
Many American taxpayers wait until the April 15 deadline to complete and file their taxes. However, if procrastination stresses you out—or if you're expecting a refund and you want it as soon as possible—you can file your 2021 return as early as Jan. 24, 2022.
Another reason to file early is to reduce the risk of someone stealing your identity to file a false return using your Social Security Number and claim a fraudulent refund.
Where to Get Copies of Tax Forms Due to You
Before you can file, you’ll need tax forms from the financial institutions with which you have accounts. They should either arrive in the mail, or you'll receive information on how to access them online. These forms report how much interest you’ve earned on high-yield savings accounts and certificates of deposit, how much money you made or lost from selling investments, and the amount of any distributions you’ve taken from retirement accounts.
You’ll also need tax forms documenting your earned income and the taxes you’ve already paid. The most common of these is Form W-2; employees receive it from their employers. Freelancers and independent contractors should receive Form 1099-MISC from each client who has paid them $600 or more (the IRS calls this “non-employee compensation”). You might also receive a 1099-MISC for certain other types of income, such as prize money.
In addition, you may receive forms documenting any interest you’ve paid on a student loan or mortgage. This interest may be tax-deductible, depending on your circumstances.
Traditionally, financial institutions, employers, and clients mailed paper copies of these forms to you. Today, you may need to retrieve them yourself by logging into your account online. Sometimes this service is optional, but other times it will be the only way you can get the forms you need.
Deadlines for Making Tax Forms Available to You
The IRS has established deadlines by which employers and financial institutions must mail you these forms or make them available electronically. Here are the deadlines for when you’re supposed to receive some of the most common forms people need to file their 2021 tax returns.
- W-2, Wage and Tax Statement – Feb. 1
- 1098, Mortgage Interest Statement – Feb. 1
- 1098-E, Student Loan Interest Statement – Feb. 1
- 1098-T, Tuition Statement – Feb. 1
- 1099-B, Proceeds from Broker and Barter Exchange Transactions – Feb. 1
- 1099-C, Cancellation of Debt – Feb. 1
- 1099-G, Certain Government Payments (e.g., state tax refunds, unemployment compensation) – Feb. 1
- 1099-DIV, Dividends and Distributions – Feb. 1
- 1099-INT, Interest Income – Feb. 1
- 1099-MISC, Miscellaneous Income – Feb. 1
- 1099-R, Distributions from Pensions, Annuities, Retirement or Profit-Sharing Plans, IRAs, Insurance Contracts, etc. – Feb. 1
- 1099-S, Proceeds from Real Estate Transactions – Feb. 1
- Schedule K-1, Partner's Share of Income, Deductions, Credits, etc. – March 15
What to Do About Missing Tax Forms
If you don’t receive one or more of the forms you need, you’re not absolved of reporting that information on your tax return. Here’s how to handle this situation.
- Search your inbox. You might have received an email notification that a form was ready in your online account. A link to a secure portal to retrieve your form may have been emailed to you. Or you might have misplaced an envelope you got in the mail.
- Log into your online account. See if the form is available there. From January through April, most sites prominently display information about where to find your tax forms after logging into your account. Banking, investment, and loan interest forms are usually available online from major financial institutions.
- Contact the issuer. Email or call your financial institution, client, or other issuer to ask about the status of your missing form and the method used to send it to you. Ask for a replacement copy to be sent to you.
- File an extension. If you still don't have all the forms you need by April 15, you can file for an extension. However, if you owe taxes, you must still pay what you owe by April 15 to avoid penalties, so make your best estimate. The extension only applies to your tax paperwork—your form 1040 and any others you’re required to submit.
If you file a paper return by mail, you’ll need to include copies of the forms issuers have sent you if they show taxes withheld. If you file electronically, you won’t have to.
The Bottom Line
Acquiring, organizing, and completing all the forms you need to prepare your tax return can be excruciating for all but the most enthusiastic super-doers. But unless you’re among those who don’t have to file a tax return, it’s something you must do if you don’t want to risk incurring penalties for failure to file. So set aside a few hours, put a sufficient quantity of your favorite snack within arm’s reach, and get it over with.